Oceans, lakes and rivers often contain a large number of microplastic particles on their surface. Impacting raindrops cause many droplets with an almost equally high concentration of microplastics to be thrown up into the air. When they evaporate in the air, the particles enter the atmosphere. Researchers from the University of Bayreuth describe these processes in a new study published in "Microplastics and Nanoplastics". In an initial estimate, which is still fraught with uncertainty in several respects, they come to the conclusion that, worldwide, up to 100 trillion microplastic particles could enter the atmosphere every year as a result of rainfall.
The Institute for Materials Resource Management of the University of Augsburg investigates ecological and economic optimization potentials of fibre reinforced ceramic composite structures (CMC) from the manufacturing to the recycling processes. The "CU EcoCeramic" research project is funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy with 700,000 euros.
Ultrashort flashes of light lasting less than a quadrillionth of a second are fast growing in technological importance. In laser sources, pairs and groups of light flashes can be created instead of individual flashes. Similar to the chemically bonded atoms in a molecule, they are coupled with each other and their short temporal intervals can possess remarkable stability. Researchers at the Universities of Bayreuth and Constance have now revealed a cause for the stable coupling of ultrashort light flashes and found a way to control their spacing both very precisely and rapidly. They present their research results in the journal "Optica".
For the first time, researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have successfully used a new X-ray method for respiratory diagnostics with patients. Dark-field X-rays visualize early changes in the alveolar structure caused by the lung disease COPD and require only one fiftieth of the radiation dose typically applied in X-ray computed tomography. This permits broad medical application in early detection and treatment follow-up of respiratory ailments.
In the manufacture of turbines conventional processes often reach their limits. Therefore, additive manufacturing is increasingly used to produce complex, curved components with intricate structures. A research team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has now examined common methods used to locate defects inside components. In their investigation neutron grating interferometry, performed at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz research neutron source (FRM II), achieved the best defect detection.
For Dr. Alison Mitchell, who is transferring to Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) from ETH Zürich, it would be a dream come true. From October, Dr. Mitchell and her Emmy Noether junior research group at the Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP) are to investigate the role pulsars play in creating galactic, high-energy cosmic rays. The project is set to run for six years, and has received nearly 1.5 million euros in funding.
Baron Munchausen’s tale of having pulled himself out of the swamp by his own hair can be quickly exposed as a fairytale. Established laws of nature suffice for the argument. A new and more comprehensive refutation is presented by Matthias Schmidt and Sophie Hermann from the University of Bayreuth in "Communications Physics". For the first time, these authors have applied Noether’s theorem to statistical mechanics. In their work the physical system of the world was mathematically unhinged and moved to an arbitrarily chosen alternative place. As the fundamental laws of physics remain valid wherever the world is placed, Munchausen is revealed a teller of lies in any misplaced world.
Due to their iridescent colors, opals have been considered particularly precious gemstones since antiquity. The way these stones shimmer is caused by their nanostructures. A research group led by Prof. Dr. Markus Retsch at the University of Bayreuth has produced colloidal crystals mimicking such structures, which are suitable for constructing new types of sensors. These sensors visibly and continuously document the temperature in their environment during a defined period. They are, therefore, tailor-made for a permanent monitoring of temperature-sensitive processes. The scientists have presented their discovery in the journal "Advanced Materials".
Many microbes have only very limited freedom of movement in their natural environment. Like in a maze, they are blocked from moving in straight lines in soils or even in the human body. That means, they have to navigate through structures full of curves and edges. In the process, highly directional movement patterns can emerge, as physicists from the University of Bayreuth and Loughborough University in the UK have now discovered. In the journal PNAS, they present their findings, which could be used for the control of microrobots and the targeted delivery of medical agents in the body.
International research team uses topological platform to demonstrate coherent array of vertical lasers